Types of Drugs - Classification Schedule
Michigan Drug Crime Law Firm Serving Ann Arbor, Lansing, Grand Rapids and Throughout Michigan
Marijuana, narcotics, illicit substances - whatever you call them, federal and state laws prohibit producing, selling, distributing or possessing many drugs. Narcotics are technically drugs, which desensitize individuals to pain, induce a stupor or even coma, such as opiates, opioids and painkillers. Regardless, the use, possession, distribution or manufacturing of these illegal substances can result in extremely serious consequences for individuals who are arrested for drug-related crimes. If you have been charged with a drug offense, contact the aggressive team of Michigan drug crime attorneys at Grabel & Associates immediately.
Types of Drugs
There are numerous types of drugs for which an individual or group of individuals may be arrested for under certain circumstances. These include:
- Amphetamines - Amphetamines and methamphetamine, commonly referred to as "meth," are stimulant drugs, which can be smoked, snorted, injected or swallowed. Meth increases the activity of certain chemicals in the brain.
- Cocaine - Cocaine, or "crack" as it is commonly referred to on the street, produces almost immediate effects, which last only briefly. Highly addictive, cocaine can be snorted or smoked, depending on whether it is in powder form or solidified. Crack is a crystallized form of cocaine.
- Ecstasy - Ecstasy is a stimulant that essentially "speeds up" the functions of the central nervous system. Also known as MDMA, xtc, and m & m, it is partially derived from amphetamine and offers the user an increased sense of emotion and euphoria. Ecstasy can be very dangerous when used in combination with other drugs.
- Hallucinogens - Mushrooms, peyote and LSD are examples of hallucinogenic drugs, which induce perceptual distortion as well as various psychological symptoms. Users often see things that are not real, such as changing shapes and bright, vibrant colors.
- Heroin - Belonging to a group of drugs known as opiates, which are strong pain killers, heroin effectively slows the central nervous system. Heroin causes a sense of depression, and can damage heart, lungs and veins if used long term. This drug is generally injected or taken in pill form, and may contain impurities when bought at street level. These impurities may be damaging to the brain, kidneys, liver and lungs.
- Marijuana - Originating from the cannabis plant, marijuana is primarily a depressant, but may also have hallucinogenic effects. Marijuana can induce feelings of paranoia and reduce inhibitions as well; these feelings can be magnified when used in combination with alcohol or other drugs. Marijuana is typically smoked either as a rolled joint, or through a pipe or bong although it can be put in food as well.
- PCP - PCP or phencyclidine is commonly referred to as "angel dust" or "rocket fuel," and was first developed as an anesthetic for intravenous use. It was removed from the medical market in the 1960s due to side effects including mania, hallucinations and delirium. PCP causes a wide range of side effects including acute anxiety, slurred speech, loss of coordination and even violent hostility in some individuals.
- Rohypnol - Similar to Valium or painkillers but about 10 times more potent, Rohypnol induces a feeling of intoxication or numbness. It is a tranquilizer with sedative properties and is not considered to be highly addictive.
- Other commonly known narcotic prescription drugs include opiates such as hydrocodone, Oxycontin and Vicodin. While these drugs are often prescribed for patients, they are also often sold on the street and used by individuals to whom they have not been prescribed, which is illegal.
State and Federal Drug Classification Schedules
In Michigan, drugs are classified under specific schedules with various criminal penalties for drugs in each category.
Schedule I - Drugs in this category have no currently accepted medical use in treatment in the U.S. and an extremely high potential for abuse. Some Schedule I drugs include marijuana, opiates, heroin, LSD, mescaline and peyote.
Schedule II - Drugs in this category are currently accepted for medical use in treatment in the U.S., or used for medical purposes with severe restrictions. Schedule II drugs include cocaine, methamphetamine, morphine, methadone, oxycontin and hydrocodone.
Schedule III - Drugs classified as Schedule III are generally less addictive and have less potential for abuse, and are currently accepted for medical use in the U.S. These drugs include anabolic steroids (ketamine), lower potency morphine, and hydrocodone with acetaminophen or aspirin.
Schedule IV - Drugs that fall into this category are not considered highly addictive, and are considered low-risk in terms of abuse. These drugs include valium, xanax and rohypnol.
Schedule V - Most drugs that fall into this category can be purchased over the counter, and are considered low-risk in terms of abuse. These drugs include cough syrups containing codeine and cold medicines containing ephedrine.
The penalties for possessing, distributing or manufacturing various drugs depend on several factors, including the amount and type of drug involved. For instance, possession of Schedule I or II drugs subject individuals who are convicted to the following penalties according to Michigan Penal Code 333.7403:
- Between 25g and 50g (felony) - Maximum of 4 years in prison and fines of up to $25,000
- Between 50g and 450g (felony) - Maximum of 20 years in prison and fines of up to $250,000
- Between 450g and 1kg (felony) - Maximum of 30 years in prison and fines of up to $500,000
- Over 1kg (felony) - Life in prison and fines of up to $1,000,000
Possession of methamphetamine or ecstasy, regardless of the amount involved, can result in up to 10 years behind bars and fines of up to $15,000. Marijuana possession may result in a sentence of 1 year in jail and fines of up to $2,000 no matter how small the amount an individual is found in possession of.
Consult with a Seasoned Michigan Drug Crime Defense Attorney Now
Drug offenses are some of the most serious crimes in Michigan, leaving the accused facing severe and often life-changing consequences. Those convicted lose not only their freedom, but a ruined career, reputation and relationships as well. At Grabel & Associates, we are dedicated to protecting the freedom and legal rights of those arrested for any type of drug crime. Contact us right away at 1-800-342-7896 for unparalleled legal representation.